Documento sin título
Managers Skills in Organizations of the Palmicultor Sector in Department of Cesar – Colombia
García Payares, Francisco José; Boom Cárcamo, Efrain Arnoldo; Molina Romero, Schneyder José
“Visión de Futuro” Año 14, Volumen Nº 21, Nº2, Julio- Diciembre 2017
URL de la Revista: http://revistacientifica.fce.unam.edu.ar/
URL del Documento: http://revistacientifica.fce.unam.edu.ar/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=440&Itemid=96
ISSN 1668 – 8708 – Versión en Línea
ISSN 1669 – 7634 – Versión Impresa
E-mail: revistacientifica@fce.unam.edu.ar
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Managers skills in organizations of the Palmicultor sector in Department Of Cesar – Colombia

(*) García Payares, Francisco José; (**) Boom Cárcamo, Efrain Arnoldo; (***) Molina Romero, Schneyder José

(*)Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas, Contables y Económicas, Universidad Popular del Cesar Valledupar
Cesar, Colombia
fragarpa@yahoo.com

(**) Facultad de Ciencias Básicas - Universidad de La Guajira. - Universidad Popular del Cesar
Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia
ingenieroboom@gmail.com

(***) Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas
Universidad de la Guajira – Sede Villanueva
Villanueva, La Guajira, Colombia
schneydermolina@uniguajira.edu.co

Reception Date: 05/06/17 – Approval Date: 06/29/2017

ABSTRACT

The untimely changes coming from the globalization of economies in the markets, require management skills to have a preponderant role in the survival of the same, hence, as the business world changes it is necessary to change the mental structure of those who direct these organizations. In this sense, the director or manager of any type of organization must update and give applicability to the three (3) large groups of management skills.
The purpose of this article is to characterize the managerial skills of the managers of the organizations of the palm sector of the Cesar department of - Colombia and the identification of strategies to improve the management of the managers in the development of their business activity. The type of study used was field research, transectional, non-experimental and descriptive. The population for the present investigation was eighteen (18) managers and assistant operatives or first line, as main informants distributed in palm oil companies of the department of Cesar - Colombia, which allowed identifying the characteristics of the managers and proposing strategies that allow to improve their management in these organizations, focused on the potentialization of the managerial skills identified and the development of personal competences.

KEYWORDS: Management skills; Oil palm sector; Organizations; Strategic alliances.

INTRODUCTION

In the organizational environment, the work of a manager is essential, taking into account that it is the call to plan, coordinate, direct and execute the necessary actions to maintain a correct management of the organization, so it requires very specific skills to perform the duties and activities inherent to his position; among others, it must develop leadership, which has now become a challenge. The educational and cultural environment encourages the emergence of attitudes contrary to leadership; that is why we must reflect and analyze what resources are necessary for the growth of the leader.
The management skills are constituted by an amalgam of elements coming from the great schools of administrative thought, which are underlying the researches carried out and which are not clearly defined. It should be noted that "managing means planning, organizing, predicting, coordinating, controlling and evaluating  tasks which are carried out through a process that requires accurate, useful and timely information" (Sánchez, 2016, p. 211).
When reference is made to the plural skills, it is observed that they are linked to a task, involve an environment, are shown in the relationship of the tasks regularly, efficiently and especially with learning, understood as the chain of conjecture and refutations (Levy, 2012). Leaders must identify new ways to apply management skills they have and also develop others; which leads to the strengthening of the skills of the managers of the companies, who due to the situations that surround them are obliged to manage a high level of efficiency and effectiveness (Naranjo, 2015).
In this sense, the present article aims to identify management skills in organizations of the palm sector of the department of Cesar - Colombia and the identification of strategies to improve the management of managers in the development of their business activity.
For the development of this research, an exploratory, transectional, non-experimental study was carried out; subsequently, a descriptive study was carried out, which allowed to identify the characteristics of the population under study, as well as their abilities and forms of behavior.

DEVELOPMENT

Approaches to the definition of Management Skills

Skills are abilities that can be expressed as behaviors at any time, because they have been developed through practice, which requires the use of strategies; while the strategies are used as a result of a conscious act, the abilities are the capacities or attitudes placed at the moment of the event in a conscious or unconscious way; then, a skill is an intellectual action that can be used in concrete works. Predicting, summarizing and doing are examples of skills; likewise, the skill is everything that the organization and its people do particularly well and is transformed into its distinctive capacity, only that it can disappear when the competition manages to equal or even exceed it (Madrigal, 2009).
In this sense, society demands the training of professionals with skills to solve the problems of professional practice and to achieve an ethical, responsible and efficient professional performance (Gonzalez, 2002). Similarly, management skills are given in different classifications, in this context, for the manager of any organization to achieve better performance is needed, to understand, develop and apply social interpersonal skills, as well as leadership (Madrigal, 2009).
Managerial skills are the link through which strategy, management practice, tools, techniques, personality attributes and style, work to produce effective results within organizations (Whetten & Cameron, 2011). In other words, management skills are the building blocks on which effective management rests, where managers translate their own style and put it into practice.
Under this scenario, the preparation of the manager or leader of an organization in the knowledge and human interaction is currently demanded, which strengthen the labor system that is constantly evolving, this is where the new manager, entrepreneur, leader, manager , administrator and all those characters that interact in this field will have to learn to develop their skills; learning to live with other cultures, face unpredictable situations, assuming the challenges imposed by the system; It must also develop their learning skills to know, do, live and learn to undertake (Madrigal, 2009).
In the current context, the manager must possess skills as sufficient competencies for the tasks of diagnosis, planning, organization, supervision and evaluation, within their administrative process. In addition, they must exercise authority adequately, demonstrate leadership skills and rely on information systems to make decisions with the participation of their collaborators, considering organizational objectives as a priority (Martínez & Urribarrí, 2011). The managerial skills evolve over time depending on the changes that occur around the organizations and those that take place within them, therefore, managers have the need to adapt, transform and update their skills, subjecting them to a permanent update that can only be understood in an environment of continuous improvement (Katz, 1974).

Management skills in the Palmiculture sector

The analysis of managerial skills acquires relevance when it allows the executive to understand and interpret the concepts, processes, techniques, functions, their interrelationships with the people and work teams of the organization, as well as the interest groups. For the development of these skills, the manager needs to use sources of information, determine what one needs to do better, consult what specialists and scholars recommend these processes, as well as objectively ask managers what they think about these skills.
It is presumed that companies in the palm sector of Colombia require an organizational culture, where the development of managerial skills becomes a fundamental requirement; this type of management can turn the organization into an economic activity framed in the productive sector in a business oriented towards the client and direct it towards the service (Porter, 2009). In this sense, management skills vary from one organization to another and are part of the personality of the same (Drucker, 2011); therefore, they constitute a series of behavioral elements that are manifested in the scenarios for the realization of a good organizational climate, influencing the collective.
Managerial skills, within the companies of the palm sector, can be given in terms of communication management, synchronization of work teams, motivation, satisfaction, leadership, climate and in the culture of the companies that make up the sector's industry. All these components are disintegrated for analysis and comprehension, but it is required for their study to consider them in a global way and make them a holistic view of the organization. From the above, it is inferred that the important thing is to take into account within the organizational culture of the companies, the need to strengthen the employment relationship that must exist in an organization.
Based on the researcher's a systematic observation, it can be deduced that Colombia does not escape the reality described above, about the weakness in the application of managerial skills in many companies in the palm oil sector; consequently, this could affect competitiveness since it is inherent in the process of productivity and innovation. The skills and knowledge, together with the strategic analysis, reflected at the macroeconomic level are the main differentiating elements of the sectors of economic activity; these factors will mark the differences in economic development and therefore the sustainability of nations (Ferrer & Clemenza, 2006).

Types of management skills

It must be taken into account that it is the people who make the organizations change, grow and develop the sector they belong to (Porter, 2009). Without the intervention of the hand of man, organizations could not adapt to the new economic models in which they live, that is why, the implementation of these managerial skills is required so that people work safely and make the best possible contributions to the organizations

Technical skills

Considered as those that are acquired in the academy, during the course of professional life (experience) or by the conjugation of both scenarios; they refer to the ability to carry out procedures in a specific area; that is, to possess, understand and apply the technical knowledge of their field of action and the organization for which they work for their position. It is very important to clarify that technical skills are not the same for all managers, they must be acquired and be consistent with the work performance area of ​​each manager.
The skills or technical skills are important for the mechanics of the work of managers, because they provide them with the tools to understand and get involved in the work of their subordinates and thus implement a model of addressing according to the needs and requirements of the area (Ruiz, 2013). In summary, technical skills are concerned with executing the tasks that are executed in organizations according to the pre-established methods and with the available resources, as well as generating appropriate evaluation models. The purpose and function of all organizations, both commercial and non-commercial, is the integration of specialized knowledge into a common task.

Specialized knowledge or experience

The specialized knowledge, is the set of information stored through experience, learning or through introspection; in the broadest sense of the term, it is about the possession of multiple interrelated data, that when taken by themselves, have a lower qualitative value (Pavez, 2009). It is a skill that the individual possesses, which makes it different from the others, constituting a reality consubstantiated by the rapid development of new concepts and technologies and the opening of new fields of action and research.

Human Skills

Human or social skills are understood as the capacities that managers must have to work, persuade, guide and / or motivate other people without distinction of age, gender, class or condition, in favor of the achievement of business objectives (Ruiz, 2013). Some social skills such as talent, temperament, self-knowledge and self-regulation are inherent to the human being; however, others such as the ability to control stress and manage time, the ability to solve problems effectively, the ability to generate effective communications, climate, leadership, satisfaction, motivation, work teams, the development of power and influence , as well as the capacities to conduct meetings, presentations and interviews, among others, can be improved and / or learned over time
Humanistic or social skills are important at all hierarchical levels, because they allow an adequate interaction between subordinates and managers, which in turn is evidenced in the improvement of interpersonal relationships, an adequate work environment and even an increase of productivity.
However, this revolutionary environment due to the accelerated economic changes creates in organizations (including companies in the palm oil sector), an environment of threats in achieving the achievement of their proposed objectives, given situations of productivity management, competitiveness , and satisfaction in one´s team of interest. Therefore, technical and human skills, in modern management, are topics of interest for any type of organization; these in turn serve as a complement to the management of who is leading the company, which allows them to consolidate the plans of business.

Work teams

The work teams aim to achieve common goals, understanding that the proposed goals can be achieved by putting into play the knowledge, skills, abilities, information and in general, the competencies of the different people that make it up (Senge, 2012). In this sense, work teams can come together in different types, depending on the members that compose them, the achievement of their objectives, the voluntariness or obligation of participation in them and other characteristics; these teams are characterized by having very defined features that distinguish them from other types of groups.
Teamwork is the ability of a group of people to carry out activities together in harmony in order to achieve a set of common objectives, in the team there is mutual trust between people in relation to work and study (Covey, 2003). Decisions are made jointly, the group sympathizes with mutual needs, responsibility is shared and power is shared. The difference between group and team is obvious when they refer to extreme cases, because we do not say a football group or a team of neighbors; however, the dividing line is not precise enough. It is important to identify that a work team presents greater demands for its members in terms of the way in which they are involved affectively in the development of their activities.

Motivation

Motivation is those internal and external factors that move the person to act in a certain way (Benavides, 2002). The search for elements that allow focusing the energies of people towards specific directions has been a constant, as well as finding elements that allow channeling the effort, energy and behavior of the participants toward the achievement of the objectives sought by organizations and  and one´s own employees.
The motivation is an important factor to achieve the objectives, both of a company or a work team (Drucker, 2011). In this sense, we must consider that organizations cannot motivate their employees, what they can do is that the workplace has an environment conducive to self-motivation of staff and work teams. Under this scenario, the motivation may arise from the needs of the human being (Chiavenato, 2004), or it arises from a third person or a self-motivation may occur. On the other hand, demotivation can also occur from nothing; these emotional changes are usually due to small complications that arise, which directly affects the work.
The motivation in the work teams, should be carried out as a technique, since the presence of any employee properly motivated in a group of work will bring good results, as he will perform as best as possible

Satisfaction

Satisfaction is a brain state produced by a greater or less optimization of the brain retro feeding where the different regions compensate their energetic potential, giving a sensation of plenitude and extreme non appetite when satisfaction goes together with rational security of having done what was within reach of one´s power to a certain degree of success, contributes to sustain a harmonious state within what is mental functioning. (Garcia, 2006)   
Satisfaction in the workplace implies the feeling of liking or disliking what the worker experiences; It can change even in workers who occupy exactly the same position and working conditions. A worker with certain personal characteristics may be satisfied with his position and another with a different profile may feel totally dissatisfied. In these situations, it is convenient to evaluate periodically the satisfaction of each one of the employees of the company.
It is practically impossible to determine what factors are going to satisfy all employees, but if you want to generate and maintain the satisfaction of workers, you must ensure that the remuneration is adequate, coordination, supervision and feedback are clear and timely, that there is good work environment in which team work prevails, solidarity and that both the nature of the activities to be developed and the working conditions are convenient and motivating (Robbins & Judge, 2009). Therefore, it is very likely that people with appropriate talents can achieve better performance in their position and, therefore, be more successful generating greater satisfaction (influence formal recognition, feedback and other contingent factors), contributing to the success of the organization.

 Leadership

It is a universal human condition, it is an action on people not on machines or apparatuses, in which feelings, interests, aspirations, values, attitudes and all kinds of human reactions intervene; therefore, the leader is the one who guides his work team towards a common goal.
Leadership is the ability or capacity that guides the way forward, through stimulation by its influence of all the areas that make up an organizational system, maximizing each one of them, achieving through creativity the increase of productivity, translated into the satisfaction of needs, in order to achieve the general objectives of the company (Maxwell, 2003). "Traditionally there are two perspectives that define this concept, the first of which studies leadership as a hierarchical position within an organization and the other analyzes leadership as a process of social influence" (Helland & Winston, 2005; Acosta et al. ., 2015, p.40).
 Other concepts show that leaders are in constant personal evolution, taking care at the same time to stimulate others towards their own evolution, through the capacity they have to transmit their approach, motivating all who are in charge, achieving approval and consistent adherence, to achieve the goals set by the organization.

Conceptual Skills

They are the capacities to see the images of the set, to recognize the important elements in a situation and to understand the relationships between them. These skills allow thinking in terms of models, frames of reference and broad relationships, as in long-term strategic plans (Cleghorn, 2005). Conceptual skill refers to ideas, human ability focuses on people and technical ability has to do with things. In this regard, this ability allows individuals to be in tune with the objectives of the total organization and not only with the objectives and needs of their immediate group.
The managers of the organizations require the management of conceptual skills, these suppose the development of an effective way of thinking and a way of visualizing the companies as a whole, as a mechanism that must work perfectly (Ruiz, 2013). There are determining elements closely related to management skills, among them are highlighted (Madrigal, 2009):
Creativity: Creativity is understood as a process of discovery or production of something new, valuable, original, useful and meaningful, based on information already known; it covers the possibility of solving a problem already known and discovering it where the rest of the people do not see it. It occurs in diverse and heterogeneous scenarios, and not only benefits the individual that generates it but also humanity. The creativity is defined as the ability to give origin to new and valuable things, the ability to find new and better ways of doing things; it also affirms that "it is the faculty to reorganize in some original way the elements of the perceptive field" (Rodríguez, 1995, cited by Madrigal, 2009, p. 115). The students of organizations define creativity as the ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make associations between ideas (Robbins & Judge, 2009), this allows to see problems in different ways and consequently identify all viable alternatives.
 Reflection: Reflection is the ability of people to form ideas and representations of reality in their mind, relating some things to others, thought is a human quality (Madrigal, 2009). Reflection is a faculty possessed by man that includes emotion, reason and emotion, because it is freed from certainty and reason because, according to what is seen, a rational construct is elaborated, which is a transcendent act (Maturana, 2000). The reflection is also considered a virtue today, if you take into account that the stressful lifestyle that is carried out, it does not allow you to stop to think before acting impulsively.
This thought incorporates the mission, vision, objectives, values ​​and strategies of the company, therefore reflections at the organizational level require leaning towards a transformation in the position of the management to enable the rapid adaptation of the organization to the increasingly changing environment.
Innovation: Innovation is the specific tool for employees, it is the means by which change is exploited as an opportunity to do a different business where resources with specific characteristics for people are denoted, which support the creation of wealth (Drucker , 2011). Etymologically, the term comes from the Latin innovare, which means changing or altering things by introducing novelties. In this sense, the impact of changes in organizations can occur through the innovations that are incorporated, marked in turn by the acceptance of the market and its success in it, it can be radical innovations that pursue through something new to appropriate the entire market or innovations that by their characteristics are aimed at reducing costs.
To understand technology:  Scientific and technological development is one of the most influential factors in contemporary society. It is important to understand technology as a management tool to develop actions in a world so competitively agitated (Serna, 2010). Understanding technology and science as tools for our personal and professional growth is also essential for our well-being.

Case studies

Acosta, Zárate & Garzón (2015), analyzed the relationship between transformational leadership and hope in 100 Chilean business leaders. The authors identified that the goal determination component has a positive relationship with the variables education and time in the current position, direct employees in charge and experience in personnel management. In terms of planning to achieve the goals, the analysis shows only a positive relationship with the experience in personnel management.
Naranjo (2015), conducted a study focused on characterizing managerial skills in the leaders of medium-sized companies in Colombia. aspects such as the example, valued in average in 14.8%, real commitment, valued with 16.1%, how to understand success with 10.8%, the value of the values, 9.9% and all the previous ones with 48.4% .
Martínez & Urribarrí ( 2011), analyzed management skills in social economy organizations located in the state of Trujillo - Venezuela, can be observed with two instruments of Likert scale and reliability of 0.9414. The results were obtained from the joint quantification of the results of citizen leadership, under the study of proactivity, teamwork and innovation, as well as team learning and dialogue. Of the respondents, 67% is located in that there are highly managerial skills in social economy organizations, 0% is highly existent, 33% considers them fairly existing and 0% considers them non-existent.
Frías, Roys & Ucrós (2009), identified as management skills in managers of the University of La Guajira, self-esteem, communication, participation and performance. The research identified that managerial skills of managers, regarding self-esteem, is recognized with 86%, communication obtained 87%, participation 97% and performance 93.5%.
Ferrer & Clemenza (2006), studied management skills as a basis for competitive strategy in the Venezuelan metal-mechanic activity sectors. For human or partner skills In the sector, they expressed that they do not feel identified with what they do and that their work is also not valued (intentionality 17%); as they consider low interpersonal relationships (4%); Likewise, the intellectual or conceptual skills increase in the manager according to the scale and type of organization (65%)

Design of the research

 An exploratory, non-experimental, transectional study was carried out; later, a descriptive study was carried out that allowed identifying the characteristics of the population under study, as well as their behaviors and their abilities. The study population was the group of companies in the palm sector in the department of Cesar - Colombia, without the need for a systematic selection, but with homogeneous characteristics, such as:
• Companies in the palm sector that have managerial positions in the same area in their organizational chart
• Companies in the palm grower sector that have in their managerial positions a description of functions of equal managerial deployment
• Companies of the palm-growing sector located in the municipalities of Becerril, Codazzi and Copey.
The population is made up of companies Palmeras de Alamosa SAS located in the Municipality of Becerril, Palmeras de la Costa SA in the Municipality of Copey and Hacienda Las Flores, in the Municipality of Codazzi, department of Cesar - Colombia, identifying as a primary source all managers and assistant or first line managers, such as main informants of the same. The census sample was of eighteen (18) subjects; of which information was obtained through a survey to establish the use of the skills investigated in each of its activities.

Instrument reliability

Once the instruments were applied, the reliability was calculated by the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient method, for which a single administration of measurement and produces values ​​that oscillate between 0 and 1, that is, it is only applied by calculating the coefficient applicable in Likert type questionnaires, where the zero coefficient (0), means null reliability and one (1), represents total reliability, considering the following formula. In table 1 the scale of value of results is presented.

Dónde : Cronbach coefficient,  : Number of item,  Variance of the scores of each item,  Variance of the total scores.

Table N°1: Scale of Results Value

Source: Ruiz (2013)

This estimate of reliability facilitated having a reliability coefficient of the instrument to ensure the consistency of the answers located at 0.85. For this case. the applied instrument denoted a range of magnitude with very high reliability and consistency of responses.

Information analysis technique

The descriptive statistical technique with measures of central tendency was used to carry out the processing of the information obtained. In order to carry out the processing of the results obtained through the application of the instrument which allowed the description of the study variables specifically through the use of central tendency techniques (Hernández et al.. 2010).
Under the same order, the average or arithmetic average was used allowing the categorization of items indicators, dimensions and study variables. in order to analyze management skills in companies in the palm sector in the department of Cesar.

Results of the research

The processing. analysis and interpretation of the data obtained from the study population, collected through the use of an instrument addressed to eighteen (18) key informants such as the leaders of the General Management, Human Resources Management was carried out. Legal Management, Marketing Management, Production Management and Maintenance Management of all companies in the palm sector in the department of Cesar. Colombia.
It will be possible to observe how the population responded according to the items of the indicators, allowing tabulating the results using mean, absolute percentage and frequency percentage for a later analysis of the results.
,In table 2. it is observed that the dimension meets an average of 2.76. It is also identified that the highest indicators are Specialized Knowledge with 50.00%. the Motivation indicator with 66.67% and the Creativity indicator with 66.67% where it is identified that the population agreed that sometimes these indicators  are present.
The indicators Leadership, Reflection, Innovation and Understanding of Technology are indicating their percentages in the option of almost never, which indicates that they are below the average within the palm oil companies.

Table N°2: Dimensions Kinds of management habilities

Source: Own Elaboration

In Table 3 the average of the dimension is presented in 2.53 indicating that it is below the average. In the same way, it is observed that the indicator Knowledge in the equipment possesses the percentage 61.11% expressing that sometimes it is present.

Table N°3: Dimension mechanisms

Source: Own Elaboration

The previous table shows that 50% of the population says that the Corporate Training indicator is almost never applied in palm oil companies. The Culture indicator in the team with a percentage of 50.00% where the respondents express that the companies make the effort to develop a culture that allows them to increase the results of managerial decision making. On the other hand, the training indicator for people shows a percentage of 37.04%. where the population expresses that it is sometimes important for companies to create spaces that enable the formation of an organizational culture.

Discussion of the results

For management skills in companies in the palm sector, the results show that motivation is close to the average, expressed by 66.67% of respondents. Motivation is an external and internal factor that allows people to act in a certain way, as well as finding the elements that allow their energy and behavior efforts to be channeled for the achievement of objectives (Benavides. 2002).
As for the palm oil companies, the motivation component is of great importance, since with it the objectives are reached, however the work teams according to 44.44% of the respondents, say that they are motivated to work that way, which induces to suggest self-motivation for all the staff.
On the other hand, the Creativity indicator is close to the average indicating that 66.67% of the population says that sometimes, it is given as a production process of something new and significant, considering that in palm oil companies they start from the information already known to solve some present conflict.
Regarding the Strategic Thinking indicator, it is observed that 44.44% of the population indicates that sometimes strategic alliances exist where they are used within the same members of the company, since projects are carried out with other institutions so that sometimes  it moves competitiveness.
The characterization of the mechanisms to verify the management skills of second generation in companies in the palm sector, show that corporate training is below the average. since 50% of the population believes that personal growth activities and labor are almost never carried out that strengthen the skills of the participants in the company.
The Culture of Equipment indicator, which has an average of 2.36. is below the average, evidence that 50% of the population considers that sometimes in the palm oil companies a development process is carried out that enhances the teams of Work to improve one´s problem solving ability.

Strategies to improve management of managers

Strategy 1: Identify the creation of the knowledge that resides in the individuals in search of a criterion of interest, which allows to gather them in groups of innovation, practice and action through useful activities for the organization in dynamic and innovative environments.
Requirements - Time:
For the achievement of this action oriented towards the managers and assistant managers, a period of six (6) months is required, in each case the following is required:
• A human resource aligned to the knowledge management of the managers., as well as of the sub-managers with firm and conscious commitment of the whole organization, especially of its leaders, with a generative and continuous learning at all levels.
• Managers and assistant managers require a conscious commitment to the intangible resources of their management present in the individuals; in the same way, recognize their capacities that drive innovation in harmony with their work team, making this a decisive factor to establish alliances., as well as, in the continuous improvement of production techniques that achieve to raise the projection image of the organization.
Strategy 2: Managing the capacities attached to human talent, relying on intangible assets, which may include elements of technological skills, knowledge, skills in the management systems, physical and values ​​that underpin the whole.
Requirements - Times:
For the achievement of this action, the managers and sub-managers propose its execution in a period of twelve (12) months, for which  is required:
• Apply strategy 1 of this proposal for each organism to be studied.
• A clear description of the position of each one of the existing positions in the organization chart of the companies, in such a way. that allows evaluating what is required by the personnel in each one of them.
• Promote learning techniques based on their competences, supported by an interfunctional integration with the organization's environment and its function in the position it occupies.

CONCLUSION

It is concluded that palm companies must increase motivation as a factor that allows people to act in a certain way achieving the fulfillment of goals. Likewise, it was detected that the production processes of these companies will require moving towards the achievement of something new and significant. considering that they are based on known information to resolve some present conflict.
On the other hand it is identified that management skills need to be strengthened with corporate training since it ensures that managers and assistant managers remain competent and creative within the organization. Then it is settled that palm culture companies require the creation of spaces where management skills are supported by knowledge, finding in it a Know How. influenced by the repetition of continuous processes through the years of services and that generally they do not allow new ideas for their leaders due to the low importance of recognizing the competences of the individuals in their work team.
It is fundamental to develop activities in the palmiculture companies that are directed towards consumption and commercialization, as well as to attend several needs without losing the horizon of creativity and innovation according to the management skills of each manager and assistant manager.
To strengthen management skills in companies in the palm sector, it is recommended to assess the level of innovation of the individual to adapt it to the needs of the organization in order to improve knowledge management, as well as managerial skills. It is also important to manage the capacities attached to human talent based on intangible assets, which may include elements of technological skills, knowledge, skills in management systems, physical and values ​​that support the whole.

BIBLIOGRAPHCIAL ABSTRACT

Please refer to articles Spanish Biographical abstract

REFERENCES

Please refer to articles in Spanish Bibliography.

 

 

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